The first telephone "book" was published by the New Haven District Telephone Company, in Connecticut, in 1878. It was one page long and contained fifty names - and because, in those days, the operator would connect callers, it was a telephone directory that didn't actually list any telephone numbers.
It is estimated the 85% of Americans now own a cell phone.
Before push-button telephones, people used dial telephones. Before dial telephones were invented, operators connected every call.